Dictionar de compozitori – introducere

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G. Caccini – Le Nuove Musiche

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Introducerea colecției de monodii Le Nuove Musiche a lui Giulio Caccini (Florenta, 1602). Caccini, celebru în epocă atât pentru virtuozitate vocală cât și pentru noutatea formelor muzicale pe care le propunea, monodia/madrigalul pentru o voce și bas continuu, descrie entuziasmul cu care sunt primite câteva din piesele sale, în jurul anului 1590, de cercul de muzicieni și intelectuali din jurul lui Giovanni de` Bardi (1534-1612) – adică așa-zisa Camerata Bardi, care a avut un rol capital în geneza barocului.

They had never heard a melody of a simple voice with a single string instrument that had such power to move the affections of the soul as these madrigals. This was both because of their new style, and because when in those times madrigals printed for several voices were sung by a single one, it seemes to them that the artifice necessary to coordinate the parts prevented the soprano by itself from having any affection.

Sursa: Claude V. Palisca, Baroque music, ed. a 2-a, Englewood Clifs, 1981, p. 27.

G. M. Artusi – L`Artusi, overo Delle imperfettioni della moderna musica

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Polemica dintre susținătorii vechiului stil renascentist (ajuns să fie numit prima prattica) și inovatorii barocului italian timpuriu, ilustrată de Giovanni Maria Artusi (1540-1613) în L`Artusi, overo Delle imperfettioni della moderna musica, 1600. Luca, personaj al dialogului, descrie un madrigal în noul stil, auzit de curând într-un salon; deși compozitorul piesei nu e numit, aluzia la Monteverdi e transparentă.

The texture was not unpleasing. But, as Your Lordship will see, insofar as it introduced new rules, new modes, and new turns of phrase, these were harsh and little pleasing to the ear, nor could they be otherwise; for so long as they violate the good rules – in part founded upon experience, the mother of all things, in part observed in nature, and in part proved by demonstration – we must believe them deformations of the nature and propriety of true harmony far removed from the object of music, which, as Your Lordship said yesterday, is delectation.”

Sursă: O. Strunk, Source Readings in Music History, New York, W.W. Norton & Co. Inc., 1950, p. 396.

Vincenzo Giustiniani – Discorso sopra la musica de` suoi tempi

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Vincenzo Giustiniani, Discorso sopra la musica de` suoi tempi (1628, ms.), despre noua artă vocală a cântăreților virtuozi italieni de la sfârșitul sec. al XVI-lea:

In the Holy Year of 1575, or shortly thereafter, a style of singing appeared which was very different from that preceding. It continued for some years, chiefly in the manner of one voice singing with accompaniment, and was exemplified by Giovanni Andrea napoletano, Signor Giulio Cesare Brancaccio, and Alessandro Merlo romano. These all sang bass with a range of 22 notes and with a variety of passagework new and pleasing to the ear of all. They inspired the composers to write similar works to be sung by several voices in the manner of a single one accompanied by some instruments, in imitation of the above-mentioned and of a certain woman called Femia. But they achieved greater invention and artifice, which resulted in some Villanellas which were a mixture of Madrigals in florid style and Villanellas. Many books of these by the aforementioned authors and by Orazio Vecchi and others are seen today. But as the Villanellas acquired greater perfection through more artful composition, so also every composer, in order that his compositions should satisfy the general taste, took care to advance in the style of composition for several voices, particularly Giaches Wert in Mantua and Luzzasco in Ferrara. They were the superintendents of all music for those Dukes, who took the greatest delight in the art, especially in having many noble ladies and gentlemen learn to sing and play superbly, so that they spent entire days in some rooms designed especially for this purpose and beautifully decorated with paintings. The ladies of Mantua and Ferrara were highly competent, and vied with each other not only in regard to the timber and training of their voices but also in the design of exquisite passages delivered at opportune points, but not in excess (Giovanni Luca of Rome, who served also in Ferrara, usually erred in this respect).

Furthermore, they moderated or increased their voices, loud or soft, heavy or light, according to the demands of the piece they were singing; now slow, breaking off with something of a gentle sigh, now singing long passages legato or detached, now groups, now leaps, now with long trills, now with short, and again with sweet running passages sung softly, to which sometimes one heard an echo answer unexpectedly. They accompanied the music and the sentiment with appropriate facial expressions, glances and gestures, with no awkward movements of the mouth or hands or body which might not express the feeling of the song. They made the words clear in such a way that one could hear even the last syllables of every word which was never interrupted or surpressed by passages and other embellishments. They used many other particular devices which will be known to persons more experienced than I. And under these favorable circumstances the above-mentioned musicians made every effort to win fame and the favor of the Princes their patrons, who were their principal support.

Sursa: Vincezo Giustiniani, Discorso sopra la musica, traducere în engleză de Carol MacClintock, Musicological Studies and Documents 9, Roma, 1972, pp. 69-70. Cf. originalul italian transcris de Carol MacClintock, Musica disciplina XV (1961).

1740-1770 sau muzica europeana in travaliu?

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In ultimul timp (asta in care nu am postat nimic – nu cred ca sunt facut pentru a fi blogger, heh) am ascultat, eu barochistul, aproape numai Carl Philipp Emmanuel Bach – asa se cheama ultimul meu amor muzical. Ceva Haydn, Mozart. Dupa ce ultimii 4 ani n-am facut decat sa ma adancesc in apele aurii ale barocului, iata-ma acum ajuns intr-o zona care cel putin pentru amatorii de teorii este mlastina perfecta. Ce se intampla in perioada asta, in care muzica lui Bach (J.S. de asta data), Telemann sau Rameau incepe sa se simta invechita, concerto grosso se sufoca brusc si silentios in somn, in timp ce opera franceza isi da duhul cu mare alai si taraboi (si nu ne ridicam palaria pentru Mr. Rousseau si prestatia sa in timpul Certei Bufonilor)? In care timidul pianoforte cucereste incetul cu incetul saloanele in dauna venerabilului si intepatului sau parinte clavecin? Schimbarea se simte in aer.

Exista un adevarat ping-pong terminologic aici. Impartirea canonica vedea pur si simplu nasterea clasicismului. Alte forme muzicale ale unei noi generatii animate de noi idealuri: iluminism, vocea teoriilor despre egalitatea oamenilor, drepturi naturale etc. adica ceea ce se numeste indeobste liberalism isi face aparitia si in muzica – opera bufa italiana cu personaje contemporane si nenobile, decadenta stilului nobiliar si greoi mitologic, departat de preocuparile epocii. O trimitere la teatrul lui Marivaux si Beaumarchais, apoi la Nunta lui Figaro de Mozart si iata teoria. Apoi, parerea opusa: sa fim seriosi, nimic nu se schimba propriu-zis in mersul societatii, muzica isi pastreaza acelasi public iar dezvoltarea formala este o consecinta logica si directa a traseului ei anterior, intre Monteverdi, Bach sau Mozart e o linie dreapta, barocul. In mare, asta ar spune Remy Stricker, cel a carui carte promisesem ca o prezint. Apoi la mijloc, iata cum interpretarea de data mai recenta incearca sa scoata la iveala un stil de tranzitie, care are coerenta si identitate proprie: stilul galant pentru unii, rococo (ce facil…) pentru altii. Unde incepe sau se incheie acest stil? Ei bine, aici incep problemele, fiindca daca Haydn e un nume-borna acceptabil, galantii de inceput se dovedesc a fi greu de localizat, si elemente ale stilului sunt disecate la Handel, Rameau, Telemann (adica invechitii), apoi mai pregnant la Domenico Scarlatti si, in opera, la Hasse. Apoi acei francezi ciudatei, gen Boismortier si Mondonville. Italienii care se arunca in noua opera comica si compun mai aerat decat in traditionala opera seria: Pergolesi, Galuppi, Leo (toti trei laudati de Rousseau in a sa Scrisoare despre muzica franceza). Si germanii, last but not least. Ba mai precis esentiali. Domnul Gluck si reforma lui. Acea inovatoare scoala de la Mannheim cu dinastia Stamitz, fii lui Bach, care se raspunadesc prin toata Europa, si la mijloc intre conservatorism si inovatiile celor abia mentionati, muzicienii de la curtea lui Frederick cel Mare, la Potsdam: Graun, Quantz s.a. (C.P.E. Bach insusi e clavecinistul curtii, pana la un moment dat – plecarea conincide cu dezlantuirea sa inimitabila).

(Va urma)

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